Plymouth Colony Houses

Home Sweet Home

On January 1, 1621, the leaders of Plymouth Colony made land assignments by counting “how many families there were, willing all single men that had not wives to join with some family as they thought fit, that so we might build fewer houses; which was done and we reduced them to nineteen families,” wrote William Bradford. “We went to labor that day in the building of our town, in two rows of houses for more safety.”

Image: English Style Thatched Cottages
The thatched roofs of sun-dried reeds were thick so the water would drain off, but they must have leaked during heavy rainstorms, and they were likely to catch fire if a spark went up from the fireplace.

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Plymouth Colony

First of the New England Colonies

Plymouth Colony Begins
The people we know as the Pilgrims have become so surrounded with legends and tales that we tend to forget that they were real people – but they were placed in extraordinary situations. And yes, they did wonderfully brave things. Basically, they were English people who had suffered persecution in their homeland, and were searching for a place where they could worship God as they chose.

On December 20, 1620, the Pilgrims dropped anchor in Plymouth Harbor. The spot they chose had been named “Plimouth” on a 1614 map made by Captain John Smith, and thus it was named. The men spent three days surveying for a settlement site. They finally decided on a recently abandoned Native American village named Patuxet, largely for its defensive position.

The settlement would be centered on two hills: Cole’s Hill, where the village would be built, and Fort Hill, where a defensive cannon would be stationed. And the local Native Americans had cleared much of the land, which would make planting relatively easy.

Due to a winter storm, everyone remained on the Mayflower for the following two days. And finally on December 23, the men began felling trees and collecting materials to build shelter for their families, returning each night to the ship. Women, children and the infirm remained on board the Mayflower; many had not left the ship for six months.

On January 1, 1621, the leaders of Plymouth Colony made land assignments by counting “how many families there were, willing all single men that had not wives to join with some family as they thought fit, that so we might build fewer houses; which was done and we reduced them to nineteen families,” wrote William Bradford. “We went to labor that day in the building of our town, in two rows of houses for more safety.”

The first structure, a “common house,” took two weeks to complete in the harsh New England winter. In the following weeks, the rest of the settlement slowly took shape. Many of the able-bodied men were too sick to work, and some died of their illnesses. Thus, only seven residences (of a planned nineteen) and four common houses were constructed during the first winter.

They surrounded the entire compound, which they called Plymouth Plantation, with a stockade fence. The first street in Plymouth Colony led from the harbor up the hill to the cannon. At the intersection of the first cross street stood the Governor’s house. Everyone had access to the brook where flagons were filled with drinking water, and where clothing was washed.
Plymouth Plantation

The soil wasn’t particularly fertile, and the early onset of winter made for a short growing season. So the colonists adopted Native American crops—maize, squash, pumpkins, beans, and potatoes. They learned farming techniques from the Wampanoag, such as proper crop rotation and the use of dead fish as fertilizer. They also planted Old World crops such as turnips, carrots, peas, wheat, barley, and oats.

Many of the Pilgrims turned to the sea to earn a living. They became fishermen, sailors, and merchants. They took cargoes of fish, timber, and surplus crops to the West Indies, to England, and to Spain, and brought back articles they couldn’t make at home. They harnessed waterpower and established grain mills and sawmills.

Plymouth Colony: 1622
The colonists continued to struggle through the winter. By May 1622 their food supply was completely gone and the harvest was four months away. Edward Winslow stated, “And indeed, had we not been in a place where divers sorts of shell fish may be taken with the hand, we must have perished.”

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Plymouth Colony Women’s Rights

Pilgrim Mothers?

There is so much made of the Pilgrim Fathers of Plymouth Colony, but what about the Pilgrim Mothers? Those brave women are only mentioned in conjunction with their husbands and their children. Their lives are seen only in brief glimpses. The women themselves are almost invisible.

Plymouth Colony Life
The Pilgrims continued to follow the laws of England concerning females, marriage and the family. They brought with them traditional attitudes about the proper status and roles of women. Women were considered to be the “weaker vessels,” not as strong physically or mentally as men, and less emotionally stable.

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Plymouth Colony Harvest Celebration

The Harvest of 1621

In spring 1621, the colonists planted their first crops in Patuxet’s abandoned fields. The wheat and barley did not produce well, but their corn crop proved very successful, because Squanto of the Wampanoag tribe taught them how to plant corn in hills, using fish from the bay as fertilizer.

The First Thanksgiving?
It is apparent that the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony had some sort of celebration after their first crops were harvested in the autumn of 1621. It was probably held in early October 1621 and was celebrated by the 51 surviving Pilgrims, along with Chief Massasoit and 90 of his men. Only two written accounts exist—those of Edward Winslow and William Bradford, and I have no reason to doubt them.

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Pilgrims—Not Puritans!

English Separatists

The men and women who founded Plymouth Colony were not Puritans. The Puritans were a totally different sect—they wanted to reform the Church of England. They established the Massachusetts Bay Colony a decade later.

The people who sailed into Plymouth Harbor on the Mayflower in 1620 weren’t Pilgrims either. They were Separatists, because they wanted to make a complete break from the Church of England—they believed that it was too corrupt to be reformed.

They were persecuted for their beliefs by the English monarchy and to a lesser degree by the Puritans. In 1608, a few congregations fled to Holland. They were referred to as pilgrims because of their sojourns in search of religious freedom. At some point, the word was capitalized, and they have been known as Pilgrims throughout history.

Although they were able to worship freely in Holland, it was difficult for them to make a living. When they discovered that their children were slipping away from the Separatist faith and were becoming more Dutch than English, they began to make plans to travel to the New World.

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Wampanoag Women

Native American Women in New England

The Wampanoag, a North American Indian tribe of Eastern Algonquian linguistic stock, inhabited the territory around Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island and Massachusetts. They occupied approximately 30 villages in this region and controlled the lands east of the bay, including the islands of Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket.

Food and Shelter
Like other Algonquians in southern New England, the Wampanoag were a horticultural people. Families gathered together in the spring to fish, in early winter to hunt, and in the summer they separated to cultivate individual planting fields. The three sisters, corn, beans, and squash were the staples of their diet.

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Jamestown Colony

Women in Jamestown Colony

Jamestown would not have survived as a permanent settlement without the daring women who were willing to leave behind their English homes and face the challenges of a strange new land. These women created a sense of stability in the untamed wilderness of Virginia. They helped the settlers see Virginia not just as a temporary place for profit or adventure, but as a country in which to forge a new home.

The Early Years
On May 13, 1607, an expedition of about 100 men and boys reached a marshy peninsula about 30 miles up the James River, now in the state of Virginia. There they anchored their three small ships – the Godspeed, the Discovery, and the Susan Constant.

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Elizabeth Fisher Hopkins

The Year: 1621
Not much is known about Mayflower passenger Elizabeth Hopkins. She married Stephen Hopkins in either 1617 or 1618 at Whitechapel, England, and had a daughter Damaris born sometime around 1619. Elizabeth was Stephen Hopkins’ second wife. The name of his first doesn’t appear in any records.

In 1620, Stephen Hopkins brought his wife and their baby Damaris on the Mayflower—and his children from his first marriage, Constance and Giles. Elizabeth gave birth to a son, Oceanus, while they were at sea.

Stephen had been recruited by the Merchant Adventurers to provide leadership for the colony and to assist in the colony’s ventures. He was a member of a group the Pilgrims called “strangers,” which comprised more than half the passengers on the Mayflower.

These strangers signed on in London to help defray the cost of sending a ship to the New World and to further the chances of the colony’s survival. They included merchants, craftsmen, skilled workers and indentured servants, and three young orphans. All were common people, and about one-third of them were children.

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Eleanor Billington

The Year: 1621

Eleanor Billington ,wife of John Billington and mother of Francis and John Billington II, all Mayflower passengers, was born about 1582. Eleanor was one of only five adult women to survive the first winter, and one of only four who were still alive to partake in the harvest celebration in the autumn of 1621.

The Billingtons were not part of the Pilgrim Separatist community. Her family is regarded as being rather ill-behaved. Young Francis Billington shot off his father’s musket in the Mayflower’s cabin while it was anchored at Provincetown Harbor, showering sparks around open barrels of gunpowder.

A few months later, John Billington the younger wandered off into the woods, and was taken by the Nauset Indians to Cape Cod, where he lived for about a month before he was returned.

In March 1621, Eleanor’s husband was brought before the company for “contempt of the Captain’s (Miles Standish) lawful command with opprobrious speeches,” and was sentenced to have his neck and heels tied together, “but upon humbling himself and craving pardon, and it being the first offence, he is forgiven.”

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Priscilla Alden

The Year: 1621

Priscilla Mullins, it is believed, was born in or near Dorking, Surrey, England, and that she was in her teens in 1620 when she, her parents and her brother Joseph came to America on the Mayflower. Her parents and her brother died in the sickness that took so many lives during the first winter at Plymouth Colony, leaving her orphaned. Priscilla probably then moved in with the Brewster family.

Priscilla was one of the surviving women, who became a family, bound together by common needs and sorrows. It can be surmised that she grew close to the other young members of the colony, and possibly to John Alden.

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