Martha Carrier

Salem Witchcraft Trials

Image: Scene at Witchcraft Trial

Born Martha Allen, she was the daughter of one of the original founders of the Massachusetts town of Andover. In 1674, Martha married below her station to a young Welsh servant, who was the father of her illegitimate child, Thomas Carrier. Living for a few years in Billerica, the couple returned to Andover in the 1680s with very little money and four children.

The couple settled in Billerica proceeded to enlarge their family. After what must have been a joyful time for the Carriers, now with three sons and two daughters, the tough times began in 1690. The next two Carrier children died from the common 17th century disease of smallpox.

When Martha’s father also died later that year, the Carriers moved back to Andover to live with Martha’s mother. Unfortunately for the Carriers, they brought the smallpox virus with them to Andover. They are noted in public records as receiving the standard, but ominous, warning from the Andover Selectmen to “move on.”

Within two months of the arrival of the Carriers, nine people had died from the illness. The victims included Martha’s two brothers, her sister-in-law and a nephew, all living in Martha’s mother’s house when the Carriers arrived. The fact that Martha’s husband and children had been stricken with smallpox, but none of them died, would have been interpreted as proof that Martha possessed special powers, and they blamed her for the thirteen smallpox deaths.

To make her situation worse, after the death of her two brothers, Martha took charge of her father’s estate. She immediately ran into friction with her neighbors, threatening vengeance upon those she believed were cheating her or her husband. Martha’s independent spirit and lack of deference seem to have quickly alienated her from the rest of the community.

Martha Carrier was plain and outspoken in speech, of remarkable strength of mind, a keen sense of justice, and a sharp tongue. She, doubtless took largely upon herself the care of the household, and no small interest in the management of the outside affairs, in which she sometimes came into collision with the neighboring farmers. If the stories of witnesses can be credited, she had more than once threatened vengeance on persons she thought had cheated her husband in his dealings with them.

The Accusations
Carrier’s reputation as a witch found new expression when the witch hunt in Salem began. As the testimony reflected, the Salem community was well aware of Andover’s gossip about Martha. Susan Sheldon, Mary Walcot, Elizabeth Hubbard, and Ann Putnam – girls who also accused many others of witchcraft – screamed before the court that they could see the ghosts of the thirteen Andover smallpox victims.

A warrant was signed for Martha’s arrest on May 28, 1692, the first person in Andover to be charged with witchcraft. She was taken to jail and placed in chains to keep her spirit from roaming. Three days later, Martha underwent the examination that always preceded the witchcraft trials, and Martha maintained her innocence.

She was then transported to the Salem Village Meeting House to face the accusing girls. When Martha entered the room, the girls fell to the floor, writhing with cries of agony.

The Indictment
The accusers persisted and Martha was formally indicted. After the elders read the indictment, Martha responded with a plea of “not guilty,” and boldly asserted that those who accused her had lied. She was bound in chains and taken to jail to await trial while more evidence could be found. Martha’s two oldest sons, Andrew and Richard, ages 18 and 15 respectively, and her seven-year-old daughter, Sarah, were also put in jail as suspected witches.

Under intense pressure, little Sarah confessed that she was a witch, and that it was her mother who made her a witch. Her sons Andrew and Richard were “tied neck to heel until the blood was ready to come out of their noses,” before they confessed. Under the persuasive magistrates, the children told the examiners about journeys, meetings and “mischiefs by them performed, and were very credible in what they said.”

The Trial
On August 2, 1692 a special court was held in Salem to deal with six accused witches, including Martha Carrier. When the witnesses were brought before the court the evidence against Martha was overwhelming. All of Martha’s past arguments were brought up, and there were many facts which “looked greatly against her.” Martha again pleaded not guilty, but the proceedings continued.

There was first brought in a considerable number of the bewitched persons, who not only made the court sensible of an horrid witchcraft committed upon them, but also deposed that it was Martha Carrier, or her shape, that grievously tormented them by biting, pricking, pinching and choking them. It was further deposed that while this Carrier was on her examination before the magistrates, the poor people were so tormented that everyone expected their death on the very spot; but that upon the binding of Carrier they were ceased.

The Execution
On August 19, 1692, Martha was taken in the back of a cart to Gallows Hill in Salem. Jeering crowds lined the streets and gathered at the scaffold to witness the hanging of Martha and four men, who were also convicted witches. A testament to her courage, Martha Carrier maintained her innocence to the end. “I would rather die than confess a falsehood so filthy,” she shouted.

Almost 10 years after her hanging, her surviving family was paid 7 pounds and 6 shillings in restitution for her death.

SOURCE
Salem Witch Trials

4 comments

  1. Thomas Carrier a.k.a. Thomas Morgan Carrier was indeed Welsh, but he was no servant. He arrived in America ahead of a death warrant from Charles II as Thomas was the executioner of Charles I and a close friend of Cromwell who took over England after Charles I execution. He remained a close aide to Cromwell during his short rule and knew when Charles II returned to reclaim the throne his days were numbered in England.

    Thomas was hard to hide at a towering height of 7’4″, even in Colonial America which was still very loyal to British rule. He traveled from village to village in America and was often shunned because no one wanted a regicide for a neighbor. Even if they understood the reasoning for the execution, no one wanted to see the British army in their town looking for him.

    The Allen’s, Carrier’s and Morgan’s (Thomas’ middle name is his mother’s maiden name, a common English practice of that time) were neighbors in South Yorkshire, so Thomas finding a friendly face in the new country was welcoming. Thomas was 20 years older than Martha, but the marriage was still welcomed as Thomas may have been “on the lam”, but he was still not a commoner and not below the Allen family’s station. The reason many people actually survived smallpox was a better diet, cleanliness and sanitary practices, something both families practiced as they had the means to.

    You completely missed the reason that Martha fought with her neighbors so hard is because she took over the farm in her own name when her parents died. The farm was not put into Thomas’s name because of the regicide issue and the active warrant. Even while at the farm with his in-laws helping his wife care for them and the farm he was being harassed by town elders to leave, because of it.

    Understandably, Martha grew tired of the constant harassment, being as outspoken and plain speaking as she was, she made it very clear the land was hers, she was married to Thomas and her, he and their children weren’t leaving, but if they wanted to deal, they had to deal with her, not him. This was not only unheard of in Puritan society, but it was also very scandalous. Women didn’t conduct business, let alone speak so bluntly and direct.

    Without these details, people don’t get an accurate picture of what was really happening, and how the accusations could even take hold. Martha was a very determined woman who was not going to be pushed around. Thomas just wanted to live a peaceful existence with his wife and children. Everywhere they went, they were harassed because of Thomas’ past. Martha reached her limit and drew a line in the sand for her family and was wrongly accused of something she was not, simply because she would not be bullied, and would not give her husband up to the Crown.

    As Martha and Thomas’ 10th generation granddaughter, I find it insulting when people write of them and don’t get all the facts out there. Her story is the very definition of the term “witch hunt” and deserves the whole story told. You do no justice to her, nor my family by not telling the entire story.

  2. You do your ancestor, Martha Carrier, proud with what you wrote. Martha was a very strong woman for her time.
    I just finished reading the book The Heretic’s Daughter by Kathleen Kent (also a descendant of Martha Carrier).
    I would recommend reading this book if you’re anything like me, who can take in history so much better if it’s written in a novel form.
    My ancestors lived in Salem during the witch trials & reading this book has helped me understand the day to day lifestyle & struggles these people had.

  3. Martha is to be admired. A very strong woman.

  4. Will
    Date: 28 MAR 1740
    Note: Beginning Early Connecticut Probate Records Page 184. Carrier, Thomas, Colchester. Invt. ú659-15-11. Taken 28 March, 1740, by Michael Taintor, John Bigelow and Elnathan Rowlee. Court Record, Page 64-11 April, 1740: Adms. to Thomas Carrier, son of the deceased. Recog., ú500, with Isaac Carrier. Jeremiah Car- rier, age 14 years, son of Thomas Carrier, chose his brother Thomas Carrier to be his guardian. Recog., ú100. Cert: Nathaniel Foot, J. P. Volume 3, Page 241 Page 10 (Vol. XIV) 1st September, 1742: Thomas Carrier, Adms., exhibited an account of his Adms.: Paid in debts and charges, ú78-08-01; credit received, ú2-06-00. Account accepted.
    Subject: Thomas and Martha Carrier
    Date: Sat, 20 Mar 1999 12:07:05 EST
    From: [[ LeoNTopVMe@ a aol.com ]]
    To: ESSEX-ROOTS-L@ a rootsweb.com

    Taken from the Lowell Sun newspaper dated Tuesday March 16, 1999:

    Billerica family’s 323-year exile ends
    by Pierre Comtois, Sun Correspondent

    BILLERICA- The Carrier family won redemption last night-although it came 323 years too late.
    The Board of Selectmen, seeking to undo a wrong committed by their predecessors during colonial times, voted last night to rescind the banishment of the entire Carrier family.
    In 1676, Thomas and Martha Carrier and family were told by selectmen toleave town forthwith or pay a surety of 20 shillings per week if they wanted to stay.
    Selectman Edward Hurd, who’s wife is a descendant from the family, saidtown records aren’t clear but he believes that “a member of the familyhad the smallpox virus” and town officials didn’t want them to be a burden on their neighbors.
    This immediate family moved to Andover, only to see Martha accused ofwitchcraft in the 1690’s and sentenced to hang atop Gallows Hill in Salem.
    Members of the family later moved to Colchester, CT, Hurd said, though some stayed behind in Billerica.
    In the early 1700’s, said Hurd, the MA government apologized to Thomas Carrier for the hanging of his wife and paid him a settlement.
    Last night was the town’s turn to make good. Hurd asked his colleagues to rescind the banishment as an “appropriate gesture” to the Carrier family.
    It was unanimously approved.

    ______________________________

    Most of following has been gleaned from the Web either commercial sitesor provided by distant cousins.

    FROM: Marjorie Hansen,chesco.com]] DATE :04/11/1996

    I have some info on Martha Allen Carrier, who was hung as a Witch in the unfortunate Salem Witch Trials. Would like info on her husband, Thomas, who seemed to be absent during those times.

    Dear Walter,

    As far as I know, Thomas Carrier was at home, working and probably taking care of the two children that were not arrested with his wife . Iknow this sounds silly but it’s true.

    A little background on Thomas MORGAN aka CARRIER. Thomas was born about 1626 in Wales. There is evidence that he served in the Royal Army .
    Some have reported that Thomas, said to be over 7 feet tall, was one ofthe two regicides who, while disguised by frock and visor, appeared upon the scaffold before Whitehall and executed Charles I. Thomas emigrated in 1655 to Cambridge MA The hostility with which Thomas and his family were treated in MA lends color to the tradition that he was connectedwith the Royal Army, but discredits the fact that he was the Executioner of Charles I.

    From vital records – Billerica, MA Marriage “Tho. Carrier alias Morganand Martha Allin, May 7, 1674. p 217. Also p. 193 “Thomas Morgan alias Carrier, and Martha Allin, May 7, 1674.” The Carriers had at leastsix known children. Others not documented, may have died of small poxand other causes. Jane Carrier, born in 1680 died that same year. Other children were: Richard, Andrew, Thomas, Sarah, and Hannah .
    As I remember, Richard, Andrew, and Sarah were imprisoned with there mother. The boys were tortured to make statements against their Mother.

    Martha Allen’s family was of moderate means in those years. The girls that married well in her family, faired well. Martha, did not marry well (part of her sin..the economic reason for her trial), Martha was alsoa very strong woman (she never stopped declaring her innocent or did she stop declaring the system to be wrong. the political reason for her trial) and of course, Martha Allen was a women (need I say more).

    In 1710 Thomas Carrier appealed for reimbursement of expenses incurred for the trial. While other families valued their loss at something morethan expenses. Thomas asked only for what the trial and lodgings had cost him…He was granted 50 shillings and the prison fee to the keeper for his wife and children.4 pounds 16 shillings.

    As a FYI on Thomas Carrier, a man name SAVAGE, who investigated many tales of great age, stated that the New England Journal gave his age at death as 109 and that he was not gray or bald and walked ereCT It is stated that the day before his death he walked 18 miles from Colchester to Glastonbury with a sack of corn meal on his shoulder, making only onestop.

    Hope this answers some of your questions. How is it that you are familiar with Martha Carrier? I have a Jacob Carrier, b. 1798, can’t tie itto any Carrier liNE I believe the line is associated with the Thomas Carrier liNE..maybe through Amariah Carrier, b. 1756, son of Richard Carrier, son of Thomas. Amariah Carrier lived a long life. We know of only one child. Jesse, b. near Albany, NY 1791/94, died Maple Grove, IN about 1876. From letters in the early 1930’s, there is a discussion of the black sheep variety…I implies at least one more child of Amariah, aRobert….there are probably more.

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    From: ROBERT B MUNRO, : 03/09/1997

    Here is an interesting piece for your genealogy. So turn on your printer because you may want to add it to your files. About 4 pages long! Source information; Carrier Genealogy, 1974-1976??? by Carl W. Carrier.

    Thomas Carrier was born in Wales, England, about 1626 and died in Colchester, CT May 18, 1735; Colchester records say in his 109th year although the family claimed his age to be 113 years. Records of the town embody some remarkable traditions about him. He was 7′ 4″ tall, was notorious for his fleetness of foot, and his strength was his pride at one hundred years of age. He settled in Colchester soon after the turn of thecentury, when his age was about 76 years. He would frequently walk from Colchester to the mill in Glastonbury, a distance of eighteen miles,carrying a sack of corn on his shoulder to be ground, walking very fast and erect, stopping but once to shift his load and then walk back. The New England Journal for June 9, 1735 stated: “His head in his last years was not bald nor his hair gray. Not many days before his death hetraveled on foot six miles to see a sick friend, and the day before hedied he was visiting his neighbors. His mind was alert until he died,when he fell asleep in his chair and never woke up.”
    Tradition has it that he belonged to the bodyguard of King Charles I and that he was the regicide of the King. It could be that he was a member of the Royal Guard, Roundhead or Cavalier, as they would be selectedfor size and strength, or he could have been a member of the Rum pParliament, which condemned the King, but these possibilities would seem tocall for an older man at the time, AD 1648. However, the history of Thomas Carrier is a most colorful one even if we omit all unproven facts.
    Charles I, son of James I of England (VI of Scotland) succeeded to his father’s throne in 1625. His father was a firm believer in the divine rights of Kings, believing that they were only responsible to God, and he was in continual disagreement with Parliament; parliament believing that the authority of the people was above that of the King.

    Charles I was of the same persuasion as his father, and soon after he was crowned, conflict with his legislature began. Parliament would not grant all the money he demanded, consequently he imposed excessive taxeson people, which led to protest by Parliament. Hence in 1629 he dissolved Parliament and ruled without assistance for eleven years, proceeding to get money by illegal means. Civil War resulted in 1642.

    In 1646 Charles, defeated, gave himself up to the Scottish Army. In 1647 the Scots surrendered him to Parliamentary Army. He was tried before the English Parliament, and beheaded January 30, 1649. It was probably during these two years that Thomas Carrier was one of the Guards. The tradition cannot be disregarded as an impossible one but means of verification are lacking.
    Charles II, the lawful prince, escaped to the continent in 1648, but inFebruary 1649, Scotland proclaimed him King and his coronation took place January 1, 1651. Nine months later he was vanquished by Oliver
    Cromwell. Cromwell was made Lord Protector and Governor of the Commonwealth but he refused the title of King. He died in 1658 and his son Richard proved incompetent to take over his work. In 1660 Charles II was again made King. He agreed to a pardon for all political offenders except the regicides and the judges of Charles I, and in May 1660 the Houseof Commons ordered the arrest of all judges. Two of the judges, MajorGeneral William Goffe and his father-in-law Major General Edward Whalley, under assumed names set sail for America in May, 1660 on the PrudenceMary, the day before the warrant was issued. With a bounty on theirheads they were forced to live in secrecy and concealment for over thirtyyears.
    Dates for the arrival of Thomas Carrier in this country vary, but he probably arrived about 1655 in Cambridge, and soon after in Billerica where he was known as Thomas Carrier alias Morgan, and vice versa. Some historians say he changed his name from Morgan to Carrier to escape detection, however, if this is true an alias would not have protected him. He obviously was not in hiding and his alias may be due to the fact thatin Wales it was customary for sons to carry on the surnames of both parents, to wit: Morgan ap Carrier, ap being a prefix signifying “son of.”It is apparent that in America he followed the custom of this countryand used one name only, presumably his father’s.

    From the book of tryals: Imprimatur: J. Backenhead 1660, published immediately after the trials, one of the signers of the sentence of CharlesStuart, King of England on January 29, 1648, was a Thomas Wogan, Esquire. Dr. Stiles of Yale in his History of the Three Judges of Charles Iof England (found in the Library of American History, a reprint of standard works edited by Samuel L. Knapp) printed a list of names he copied from the Journal of Major General William Goffe who had been in hiding in Hadley, MA One Sunday, while the people of Hadley were at worship, Goffe discovered Indians were gathering to commit MAacre of the town’s people, so he came out of hiding to warn them and was thereafter known as the Good Angel of Hadley. Goffe’s original diary was not discloseduntil death had put everyone in it out of danger.
    In the diary were the names of nineteen men “condemned and in the Tower, but” said Goffe: “Morgan was not in the Tower.” It seems probable that Goffe knew the men personally, so perhaps Thomas (Morgan) Carrier was one who escaped before the order for arrest was issued and owed his freedom to an indistinct signature. (Wogan-Morgan)
    In November 1667, Thomas Carrier was assigned to cutting brush in Billerica with his comrade and employee, John LevistoNE He apparently was a man of means because he was next to the highest taxpayer in town .
    Levistone may have come with him from England, giving his services for passage and settlement, or he may have been assigned later to help him. Thomas Carrier took the oath of Fidelity, December 4, 1667, so he must have complied with the requirements of “an inhabitant.” He married Martha Allen May 7, 1674 and soon after, perhaps because rumors of his political affiliations had reached Billerica, the selectmen and constables gave notice to him that the town was not willing that he abide there. They removed to North Billerica from 1684-1690 and then to Andover. Again they were unwelcome because of a smallpox epidemic in the family andauthorities did not want to be responsible for them. However, they remained in Andover where Martha helped nurse the afflicted family, whichdid not add to her popularity.
    It is difficult to explain the Furor which swept Salem Village, MA in 1692. For years learned men in the Christian church had been trying to control witchcraft, believing that witches were persons who received certain powers from the devil, notably to cause or cure illness, or transfer it from one person to another. Some village children, stimuuated tohysteria by stories of the Barbados told by Tituba, a West Indian servant, invented a game whereby they would fall to the ground in fits. Confused parents, convinced that their children were tormented by demons,brought charges of witchcraft against more than two hundred persons and they were taken into custody. Illness, land feuds and hatred for neighbors, provided others with a chance to settle old scores. The accused could only gain their freedom by confessing to an alliance with the devil. Martha Carrier was one of those caught in this web, where guilt wasestablished by spectral or make-believe evidence, and she was arrestedMay 28, 1692.

    She was then about thirty-three years old and confessions were extortedfrom them by violence. Her sons would not confess until they had beentied by their necks and heels. Eight year old Sarah, a pathetic little figure too young to realize what it was all about, was versed in a confession that her mother made her a witch when she was six year sold; thatshe came to her like a black cat and told her that she wa sher mother.Eighteen-year-old Richard testified that he Rev. Henry Hazen, A.M.; Historical Sketches of Andover by Sarah Loring Bailey; other ref. in text.

    August 28, 1957–265 years later–a resolve was made relative to the indictment, trial, conviction and execution of those found guilty,
    Sentenced and executed in the year1692 (Chapter 143 of the Acts and Resolves of the General Court of MA) stating that “if these proceedings were lawful under the Provincial Charter and the law of MA as it then was–were and are shocking and are superseded by our more civilized laws…..that no disgrace or cause for distress attaches to the descendants by reason of said proceedings.” It further stated “that the passage of this resolve does not bestow on any person the right to bring suit for redress, nor affect in any way what so ever the title or rights in any real or personal property….”

    Thomas Carrier remained in Andover as far as is known until soon after the end of the century. Taintor’s Recordings of Colchester associates the Carriers with Colchester in 1701. His name is on the Andover list of 1702 with his sons. He probably returned to Andover from time to time until his business there was finished. He was the first settler in the valley of North Westchester (Colchester). Land was taken there in Richard’s name in 1703 and a trifle later for Andrew. In his day he owned most of the land which comprises North Westchester where he built a house and sawmill on Jeremy’s River. Thomas, Jr. did not remove from Andover with his brothers, as there are records of his family in Andover until 1712, but in 1718 he was admitted to Colchester as an inhabitant.

    A word about the Ingalls:
    The name is supposed to be of Scandinavian origin derived from Ingalls.In England the name appears as Ingall, Engle, Ingolds, and Ingles , andthe following coat-of-arms is recorded:

    Ingles: Gules, 3 bars gamelli or on a cantonargent 5 billete en cable.
    Crest: A lily springing from a crown.
    Motto: Hamilis ax carons.
    ————————————————————————————————
    From “1676 The End of American Independence” 973.24 Jervis Library, Ro
    me NY March 1995 p237-238 footnote 81 Coventry Ms 77,295 Topan and Goodrick, eds., Randolph, II 255

    “It was soon understood in London that Bacon had applied to the New England governments for assistance against the royal government and that the laws of the MA Bay Company offered a refuge to Virginia revolutionaries, just as they had to English regicides. (ibid.,233)
    . ————————————————————————————————-

    Date: 98-01-20 18:31:50 EST From: matthew
    Reply-to: CHESHIRE-L@ a rootsweb.com

    This is transcription of the death warrant of Charles I, which was given to the army officers in charge of carrying out the execution. Three are named, but there is no mention of a Bostock. Hacker was the man in charge, and was executed at the Restoration.
    At the high Court of Justice for the tryinge and iudginge of Charles Steuart Kinge of England January xxixth Anno Dni 1648. Whereas Charles Steuart Kinge of England is and standeth convicted attaynted and condemned of High Treason and other high Crymes, And sentence uppon Saturday last/was pronounced against him by this Court to be putt to death by theseveringe of his head from his body Of wch sentence execucion yet remayneth to be done, These are therefore to will and require you to see the said sentence executed In the open Streete before Whitehall uppon themorrowe being the Thirtieth day of this instante moneth of January betweene the houres of Tenn in the morninge and Five in the afternoone ofthe same day wth full effect And for soe doing this shall be yor sufficient warrant And these are to require All Officers and Souldiers and other the good people of this Nation of England to be assistinge unto you in this Service Given under our hands and Seales

    To Colonell Ffrancis Hacker, Colonell Huncks and Lieutenant Colonell Phayre and to every of them
    Jo. Bradshawe Ri.Deane Tho.Horton Tho. Grey Robert Tichborne J. Jones O. Cromwe l l
    H. Edwardes John Moore Edw. Whalley Daniel Blagra ue Gilbt. Millington M. Liuese yOwen Rowe G. Fleet wood John
    Oke yWilliam Purefoy J. Alured J. Daue r s
    Ad.Scrope Robt. Lilburne Jo. Bourchi e r
    JamesTemple Will. Say H. Iret o n A.Garland Anth. Stapley Tho. Mauleuer e r Edm. LudloweGreg. Norton Har.Walle r He nry Marten
    Tho.Challoner John Blakisto n Vinct . Potter
    Tho.Wogan J. Hutchinso n Wm. Constabl e John
    VennWilli. Gof f Rich. Ingoldesb y Gregory
    ClementTho. Prid e Willi. Cawle y Jo. Downes
    Pe.Templ e Jo. Barkestea d Tho. Wayte T.
    Harriso n Isaa. Ewe r Tho. Scot J. Hewso n
    John Dixwell Jo. Care w Hen. Smyt hValentine Wanton
    Miles Corbet Per. Pelh a m SymonMayne

    Frank Whalley – let me explain that Whitehall is in Westminster, London. At the time of Charles I, it was a palace, with residential quarters and function rooms, including the Banqueting House, from which he stepped for his execution. The palace was largely destroyed by fire in 1698, except for the Banqueting House. Nowadays, Whitehall is the name of the street which runs south from Trafalgar Square towards the Houses of Parliament. The street is flanked by government buildings , including, still, the Banqueting House. St James’s Palace is about half a mileto the west, across St James’s Park and The Mall, near to
    Buckingham Palace.
    Frank Whalley Penarth, Cardiff, Wales, UK ==== CHESHIRE Mailing List =
    === Cheshire Surnames Interest Directory:
    k/blangston/surnames/ _______________________________________________________ Surname: GOFFE Source: Whalley, Frank, U.K.

    From: CHESHIRE-L@ a rootsweb.com

    I’m sorry if I’ve caused some confusion. What I posted to the list is atranscript of the Death Warrant of Charles I, signed by 59 of the judges who condemned him to death. It was given to Colonel Hacker , and thetwo other army officers named, as their authority to carry out the execution. It was still in his possession when he was arrested at the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 and is now in the House of Lords. Notethat the date on the document is Old Style, so we would now call it January 29th 1649, not 1648.

    Knowing the religious predilections of Oliver Cromwell and his associates, it would seem very unlikely that any of the judges were Roman Catholics!

    My particular interest in the document is that the fourth judge’s signature is Edward Whalley, who was first cousin of Oliver Cromwell. In 1660, he saw the writing on the wall and fled with his son-in-law, WilliamGoff, another of the judges, to North America, where they lived in hiding for several years. By this time nine of the judges were dead, somewere executed, and others fled to Europe – I don’t have the details.

    ————————————————————————————————-
    Date: Sat, 31 Oct 1998 13:41:49 -0500
    From: @ a home.com> ]]
    To: GenMA-L@ a rootsweb.com
    Subject: Plenty more Billerica, MA, look-ups [long]

    In his History of Billerica, MA, with a Genealogical Register (Boston, 1883, reprinted 1973), Henry A. Hazen included a page-long entry on Thomas Carrier (2:22-23). Have you seen this?

    If Carrier owned land in Billerica, he never recorded any of his deeds.He certainly lived in Billerica (along High St., about 2000 feet shortof the present-day boundary with Tewksbury), and a pair of deeds from ahundred years later (1781) mention his name in the description of their bounds: “by the wall to the old line between Carrier’s & Roger’s lots” (Billerica Deeds, 7:301) and “south 313.5′ by the fence to the black oakstanding near the line between Carrier’s & Roger’s lots” (Billerica Deeds, 7:341).

    The proprietors of Billerica granted to Enoch Kidder on 6 Dec 1708 2 acres 32 poles of land “at the east end of the lot that was Thomas Carrier’s” (Billerica Grants, Town Clerk’s Office, 2:44), which followed an early (Sept 1708) grant to John Rogers Sr. of land “partly at the end ofThomas Carrier’s land” (Billerica Grants, 2:53). According to Hazen, Carrier had left Billerica for the neighboring town of Andover some timebetween 1684 and 1690.

    The Salem witchcraft papers, Additional Documents Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia library

    (Account of Thomas Carrier — Case of Martha Carrier) To: To the Honorable Committe Sitting at Salem this 13 day of Sept. 1710 These areto Inform your Honours that my wife Martha Carrier was condemned upon an Accusation of witchcraft, and Suffered Death at Salem in the year 1692. I payd to the Sherriff upon his Demand fifty Shillings. I payd the prisonkeeper upon his demand for prison fees, for my wife and four children four pounds Sixteen Shillings.

    About Carrier, Thomas Sr. When first married, the Carriers had lived in Billerica whe re Martha`s sister, Mary (Allen) Toothaker, and her family lived. About 1686, the Carrier family moved to Andover. In the fall of 1690, the smallpox epidemic, which had begun in Boston in late 1689, reached Andover, killing over a dozen people there. Included in this number were seven members of the Allen family. The Carriers were accused of bringing smallpox to Andover and were banned from entering public places. In May of 1692 during the Salem Village conspiracy, the Carriers were imprisoned; Martha Carrier was committed to the chains of Salem Prison. On June 28th 1692, a summons for witnesses against Martha ( Allen) Carrier included Samuel Preston, Jr. Phoebe Chandler , and John Rogers. Phoebe Chandler, age 11, testified: claiming `I was struck deaf, and could hear no prayer, nor singing, till the last two or three words of the singing` during a Sabbath Day meeting. On August 11, 1692, Thomas Carrier Jr.,age 10, Sarah Carrier, age 7, were tricked by Magistrate Hathorne(gg grandfather of the author Nathaniel Hawthorne) into naming their moth er as a witch. The abuse of Martha Carrier`s four childre n was a tactic used by the court to induce her to confess; she never did. On August 19th,1692, Martha Carrier was hanged at Salem.

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